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Caucasus

Caucasus - Kafkasya

  • Caucasus Foundation
  • Early August 2008 Russia invaded sovereign and democratic Georgia. No matter for which reason this is inacceptable. Join the many actions in support of Georgia! Russia is threatening regional peace. Russia took civilian hostages in Georgia to exchange them with paramilitary troops. Now Russia wants to recognize the indepandance of the breakaway regions - and still have them invaded?
  • CHERKESS ORGANIZATIONS ACCUSE ADYGEYA'S SLAVS OF SOWING ETHNIC HATRED. Four public organizations representing the Cherkess community of the Republic of Adygeya have lodged a formal complaint with the republican prosecutor's office against what they consider "chauvinistic and xenophobic" statements made at a congress last month of the Union of Slavs of Adygeya, kavkazweb.net reported on 17 January, citing the "Caucasus Times." At that congress, the Slavs, who account for some 70 percent of the republic's total population of 445,000, pledged to renew their campaign to have Adygeya merged into the surrounding Krasnodar Krai and to arm themselves to defend their interests (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 and 29 December 2005). RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 10, No. 8, Part I, 17 January 2006
  • THOUSANDS TAKE TO STREETS IN ADYGEYA TO PROTEST PLANNED TERRITORIAL MERGER. Some 10,000 people attended a demonstration on 22 April in Maikop, capital of the Republic of Adygeya, to protest Moscow's plans to abolish the region's status and merge it with the surrounding Krasnodar Krai, http://www.kavkazweb.net/ reported (see "RFE/RL Caucasus Report," 7 January and 22 April 2005). Two new organizations have emerged to mobilize public opinion against that planned merger: the Committee to Protect the Status of the Republic of Adygeya, which held its constituent meeting on 23 April, and the League of Social Unions. On 21 April, Vladimir Gromov, ataman of the Kuban Cossacks, warned in Maikop against changing any borders in the North Caucasus, AdygeyaNatPress reported. He reasoned that the region needs peace and stability, and that any move to abolish borders would only compound existing tensions. In Grozny, however, Chechen State Council Chairman Taus Dzhabrailov again proposed merging Chechnya, Ingushetia, Daghestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Stavropol Krai into a single territorial unit, Interfax reported on 21 April (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 November 2004). He argued that it is more difficult to cross internal borders between North Caucasian republics than the frontier "between the former USSR and a capitalist country," and that abolishing the existing checkpoints on those internal borders would save money. RFE/RL NEWSLINE, 25 April 2005
  • ADYGEYA LEADER COMES OUT AGAINST MERGER WITH KRASNODAR KRAI. Khazret Sovmen, president of the Republic of Adygeya, met in Maikop on 5 March with members of the executive committee of the International Cherkess Association, which is campaigning to prevent the merger of the republic with Krasnodar Krai, according to AdygeaNatPress as quoted by Kavkazweb.net on 7 March. Sovmen was quoted as repeating his earlier opposition to any moves that negatively impact on the political situation in the region, and as terming the proposed merger "regressive" and a threat to interethnic relations in an "explosive" region. On 5 March, the International Cherkess Association drafted an appeal to the Russian leadership, circulated by kavkazweb.net on 7 March, asking that the existing law on Russian citizenship be amended to enable Cherkess, Adygs, and Kabardians living outside Russia to acquire Russian citizenship after living in Russia for one year, and without forfeiting their existing citizenship, which would facilitate their settlement in their ancestral homeland. The appeal also requested that Moscow clarify its position with regard to the creation of a mega-region comprising Krasnodar Krai and Adygeya. LF
  • CHERKESS CONTINUE TO PROTEST PLANNED MERGER OF ADYGEYA, KRASNODAR KRAI. The NGO Cherkess Congress has released a statement condemning the publication in the 18-24 February issue of "Komsomolskaya pravda" of the findings of an opinion poll asking residents of Krasnodar Krai and the Republic of Adygeya how they would vote in a referendum on merging those two Russian entities, kavkazweb.net reported on 25 February (see "RFE/RL Caucasus Report," 7 January 2005). The Cherkess Congress statement criticized the poll as "destructive" and likely to exacerbate interethnic tensions in Adygeya, where Cherkess make up some 24 percent of the population, and it rejected the argument that it is economically expedient to subsume "impoverished" Adygeya into "wealthy" Krasnodar. It also noted that Krasnodar Krai Governor Aleksandr Tkachev has made discriminatory statements about some of the ethnic groups in the planned megaregion, and that the Krasnodar authorities have a record of oppressing minorities, including Armenians and Meskhetians. The statement further warned that there are 300,000 Cherkess in the North Caucasus and some 3 million dispersed across Eurasia who, the statement claimed, have the right to demand their own republic in the North Caucasus. RFE/RL NEWSLINE, 1 March 2005
  • NOGAI SEEK INCREASED INFLUENCE THROUGH PEACEFUL MEANS. During Nikita Khrushchev's rule there were attempts to address the consequences of the massive ethnic repression carried out in the Caucasus by Josef Stalin, which almost entirely changed the administrative and territorial borders of the area's republics and oblasts. The Nogai, one of the largest ethnic groups, were deprived of their territorial autonomy and the area where they lived was divided among Dagestan, Kalmykiya, Astrakhan, and Stavropol. A Nogai Raion was established in Dagestan, with the center in the city of Terekli-Mekteb. As a result of constitutional reform over recent years the Nogai have become recognized as one of Dagestan's official nations and received a seat in the republic's State Council. However, the Nogai rightly feel that their representation in the republic and raion-level leadership is small and does not correspond with their numbers.
    On 5 March 2000 the sixth congress of the Nogai people was held in Terekli-Mekteb. It was organized by the initiative of the Nogai popular movement Birlik (Unity). The congress drew up a resolution to form a national-cultural autonomous structure within Dagestan, Kalmykiya, Stavropol, and Astrakhan. The delegates sent a letter to Putin requesting his cooperation on settling this issue. These measures are considered a step in the creation of a single national-cultural autonomy. Whether or not a unified cultural autonomy can become the foundation for demands for further territorial autonomy was not officially debated at the congress, however in the corridors this was discussed as the only possible way to maintain and develop the Nogai nation.
    Regardless of the further development of events relating to Nogai statehood, the processes of the Nogai are noteworthy as there has been no example since the break up of the Soviet Union of a nation aspiring to self-determined statehood using such civilized and non-aggressive methods to reach their goal. - Nabi Abdullaev, EastWest Institute, Russian Regional Report, Vol. 5, No. 9, 9 March 2000
  • LOCAL ETHNIC GROUP CLAIMS DISCRIMINATION. Around one thousand Nogais, the modern descendants of the Turkic- Mongolic nomads who moved into the steppe areas of the northern Caucasus, recently held an unauthorized meeting in the village of Tuku-Mekteb in Stavropol Krai and demanded the resignation of the regional and educational administration of the Nogai okrug, "Nezavisimaya gazeta" reported on 15 May. The meeting was called because of the killing of two Nogai, aged 30, by a local police officer, according to the daily. Murat Auvesov, chairman of the executive committee of the interregional association of Nogais, "Birlik," told the newspaper that Nogais in Neftekumsk Raion do not have equal rights with other ethnic groups. According to Auvesov, there are no Nogais in the raion's administration or in any of the local law enforcement agencies. He concluded that unless the problem of providing equal rights to the Nogai people is resolved, "sad consequences" could ensue. RFE/RL RFR 19.5.99

    Abkhazia - Abhazya : Sukhumi / Sukhum - Suhumi - Suchumi (Georgia - Gürcüstan) - President Sergej Bagapsh elected 12.01.2005 - first President Vladislav Ardzinba Abkhazia
    Prime Minister Aleksandr Ankvab since 14.02.2005, Raul Khadjimba from 22.04.03 till 14.02.2005
    Georgia offers a better future. Katkınız beklenir.

  • Abkhazia

  • Apsny

    Adygeya - Adygea : Maikop (Russia) - President Aslancheryy Tkhakushinov Adygea
    former President Aslan Dzharimov (-13.01.2002) and Khazret Sovmen (13.01.2002-12.2006)
    last presidential elections 13.01.2002

  • Maykop
  • Adyghe Republic
  • MORE ADYGEIS FROM KOSOVA ARRIVE IN NORTH CAUCASUS. A group of 53 ethnic Adygeis, whose ancestors were forcibly resettled first to Ottoman Turkey and then to Kosova in the late 19th century, arrived in Maikop on 23 May, Russian agencies reported. A contingent of Adygeis evacuated earlier told "Die Presse" on 17 May that they are being subjected to discrimination in their ancestral homeland, that housing built especially for them has been occupied by others, and that they are unable to find work. They also expressed alarm at being unable to make telephone contact with other Adygeis who had remained in Kosova in the village of Donji Stanovci. RFE/RL Newsline 24.05.99
  • The Republic of Adygeya, which received a group of ethnic Adygeyans from Kosovo last year, would like to take in a second group. (Izvestiya, 20 April) EQI RRR v.4/n.15
  • Chechnya - Çeçenistan / Chechen Republic of Itchkeria : Djoharkala - Grozny (Russia) - President Aslan Mashadov (dead) Chechnya - First president Dzhovhar Dudayev from October 1991 till April 1996 - interim president Selimhan Yandarbiyev from April 1996 till February 1997 
    Last presidential elections: February 12, 1997

    Do not support the invasion in Crimea.

    Dagestan - Dagistan - Daghestan : Makhachkala (Russia) - State Council chairman Mahomedali Mahomedov since 1994 till 16.02.2006 Dagestan
    Last parliamentary elections : 16 March 2003 - People's Assembly, 120 seats
    Prime Minister Atay Aliev, former PM Khizri Shikhsaidov 1996-12.10.2004
    Makhachkala Mayar Said Amirov since February 1998, third term

  • CaspianNet Dagestan
  • Text: Socio-Economic Problems of Dagestan, Ismail Ozsoy, TIKA Eurasian Studies 4 Winter, 95/96, p.62

    Ingushetia - Ingushetiya : Magas (Russia) - President Yunus-Bek Yevkurov, re-elected Ingushetia
    Last parliamentary elections: February 28, 1999 - 21 members, turnout 52%, 115.000 voters, 122 candidates - 1 pro-presidential Daimokhk movement, 2 Chechen, 1 Russian
    Prime Minister: Kharun Dzeitov since 14.03.2008 - Timur Akhmetoglu Mogushkov from 19 June 2003 till 14.03.2008
    Last presidential elections: 01.03.1998 - former president Ruslan Aushev and Murat Zyazikov

  • EVER MORE INGUSH FORMALLY DENY VOTING IN STATE DUMA ELECTION. The number of Ingush voters who have filed formal statements denying having cast ballots in the December 2 Russian State Duma elections has risen to 87,340, or 54.4 percent of the republic's total electorate, the independent website ingushetiya.ru reported on January 10. The republican authorities claimed voter turnout of 98 percent, of whom 98.9 percent allegedly voted for Unified Russia; ingushetiya.ru appealed to persons who did not vote to lodge formal statements to that effect (see "RFE/RL Newsline," December 3, 4, 11 and 28, 2007). RFE/RL Newsline
  • WEBSITE CONTINUES TO DISPUTE REPORTED ELECTION TURNOUT IN INGUSHETIA. Magomed Yevloyev, proprietor of the independent website ingushetiya.ru, explained in an interview published in "Kommersant-Vlast" on December 10 how volunteers monitored voter turnout at virtually all polling stations in Ingushetia during the December 2 elections to the Russian State Duma. He repeated his previous estimate that fewer than 10 percent of the electorate cast their ballots, in contrast to the 98 percent claimed by the republic's administration (see "RFE/RL Newsline," December 3, 2007). Yevloyev added that of those who did participate in the vote, some 5 percent voted for Yabloko, which advocates the return to Ingushetian jurisdiction of North Ossetia's Prigorodny Raion. Ingushetiya.ru has received some 5,000 protests from voters affirming that they did not participate in the December 2 vote. RFE/RL Newsline 11.12.2007 LF
  • INGUSHETIYA OPENS NEW CAPITAL. Ingushetiya President Ruslan Aushev and Chechen President Maskhadov opened Ingushetiya's new capital of Magas on 31 October. Like St. Petersburg, the new capital was built on barren ground. The Turkish firm Entes has only completed the presidential palace thus far, but is working on buildings for the parliament and the government, Kommersant Daily reported on 3 November. Aushev told the newspaper that he built the new capital to demonstrate that he had no claims to North Osetiyan territory, particularly the right bank of Vladikavkaz. By his own account, he has spent 10 billion rubles on the project since 1995. The money came from the off-shore free trade zone that existed in Ingushetiya until 1997, various business centers, registration of off-shore businesses in the republic, and a four-year, $80-million loan from Turkey. RRR 05.11.98

    Kabardino-Balkaria : Nalchik (Russia) - President Arsen Kanokov Kabardin-Balkaria
    since September 28, 2005
    Prime Minister: Andrei Yarin since June 19, 2006

  • Kabardino-Balkaria Online
  • The Globetrotters Club

    Kalmykia - Khalmg Tangch : Elista (Russia) - President Kirsan Ilyumshinov Kalmykia
    First elected April 11, 1993, last re-election on October 27, 2007
    Last legislative elections (Khural) : October 18, 1998 - 2003 - 02.03.2008
    Prime Minister: Vladimir Sengleyev since 06.12.2007, 28 ministries, 1.300 state bureaucrats
    population: 300.000
    The Kalmyk nation was deported from its homeland between 1943 to 1956.

  • Kalmyk Resources Directory
  • Kalmykia Yahoo! Group

    Karachay-Cherkessiya - Circassia : Cherkessk (Russia) - President Rashid Temrezov Karachay-Cherkessia
    Next presidential elections: August 2007 - last presidential elections : 17 August 2003 & 16. May 1999 Vladimir Semenov (Karachai)
    former president Mustafa Batdyev, Boris Ebzeyev till 24.02.2011
    Cherkessk city mayor Stanislav Derev
    Prime Minister Alik Kardanov, since 19.01.2005, he held that post already under President Semenov

  • Karachay
  • Georgia : Ahiska - Meskhetia - Meskhet Dzhavatheti - Meskhetskiy Khrebet : Ahalchihe
    Georgian Parliament Info
    Ahiska Türkleri
    Lage der Mescheten in Russland
    Meskhetian Turks in Azerbaijan
    After beeing attacked brutally by Russia, Georgia decided to leave the CIS. Other countries in trouble with frozen conflicts like Azerbaijan, Moldova and Ukraine should do the same.
    Ahalchihe in georgian means new castle. Ahiska is a city in Georgia 15 km from the Turkish border. At Georgian-Turkish border the Turkgozu gate was opened on July 31, 95 by the presidents Shevardnadze and Demirel.
    It became ottoman in the XVI. century and got under russian rule in 1828 with the Edirne treaty. After the 1853-1856 Ottoman-Russian war some Ahiska Turks fled to Erzurum. Ahiska became part of Georgia in 1918. In 1937 again Ahiska Turk migrated to Turkey. 40.000 Ahiska Turks had to join the Red Army. Nobody was left to work in the farms. Secret Decree 6279 ordered the deportation of [16.700 families, 91.000 people & 15.000 surviving soldiers] Ahiska Turks from their 5 cities and 200 villages to Siberia and Central Asia [40.000 to Kazakstan, 30.000 to Uzbekistan, 16.000 to Kyrgyzstan] in 31.07.1944. 7.000 Georgian families moved into their houses.
    As returning to Ahiska is not easy, Ahiska Turks first come to Azerbaijan. After the June 1989 Fergana progroms many left Uzbekistan. Around 150.000 live in Kazakstan. Ahiska Turks founded cultural centers in Uzbekistan, Kazakstan and Kyrgyzstan.
    Islamin ilk fetihleri esnasinda Hz. Osmanin hilafetine rastlayan dönemde Sam valisi Muaviyenin kumandanlarindan Habib b. Mesleme tarafindan ele gecirilen Ahiska, 1267-1268 yillarinda da Mogollarin hakimiyeti altina girmis, daha sonraki yillarda bolgenin yari bagimsiz valileri atabegler tarafindan yönetilmistir. Ahiska Atabegleri Lala Mustafa Pasanin Cildir Savasi (1578) sonunda Osmanli idaresinde girdiler. ahiska türkleri Zakir Avsar 1997

  • GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT GIVES GREEN LIGHT FOR REPATRIATION OF MESKHETIANS... Deputies approved on July 11 in the third and final reading by a vote of 117 in favor and 19 against a bill that would pave the way for the return to Georgia of the Meskhetians who were deported to Central Asia on Soviet leader Josef Stalin's orders in November 1944, together with their descendants, Caucasus Press reported. Those Meskhetians who want to return to Georgia will have to provide documentary evidence that they (or their parents) were indeed deported, and lodge a formal application with the Georgian government by December 31, 2008. The Georgian authorities will not be obliged to provide those who return with any financial assistance. The Meskhetians are Muslims, but their ethnogenesis is disputed: some claim they are Georgians; others, Turks. They first began agitating to be allowed to return to Georgia following the 1957 decree that exonerated the various deported peoples of collaboration with Nazi Germany and lifting the travel restrictions imposed at the time of their deportation. Unlike the Chechens, Ingush, Karachais and Balkars, the Meskhetians were for decades refused permission to return to Georgia, and began doing so only in the 1980s. Many fled Uzbekistan in 1989 following ethnic clashes in which some 100 Meskhetians were killed and resettled in the North Caucasus, from where several thousand have emigrated either to Turkey or the United States. Georgia pledged on joining the Council of Europe in 1999 to allow all Meskhetians who wished to do so to settle in Georgia, but failed to create conditions for them to do so. The number of Meskhetians likely to take advantage of the new law to settle in Georgia is estimated at between 40,000 and 100,000. The opposition Conservative Party has consistently opposed allowing the Meskhetians to return to Georgia, questioning whether they consider themselves Georgian, speak Georgian, and will prove to be loyal citizens. RFE Newsline 12.07.07
  • GEORGIA TO BECOME FULL MEMBER OF COUNCIL OF EUROPE. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on 27 January voted unanimously to admit Georgia to full membership within three to six months. That decision is conditional on implementation of judicial reform, a tougher crackdown on corruption, and progress in repatriating to Georgia the Meskhetians deported by Stalin to Central Asia in 1944, according to Interfax. The Council of Europe recommended legislation on the exoneration of Meskhetians within a year, and their repatriation to Georgia within five years. The presidential adviser said that Georgia would be able to put the recommendations into effect. Noting that now Georgia's citizens are entitled to turn to the European Court for justice, Pichkhadze did not rule out an avalanche of such petitions at first. 27.01.99
  • Ahiska Türkünün vatandasIik sevinci Yillar önce ulkelerinden surgune gonderilen ve cesitli yollardan Yalovaya gelen 700 kadar Ahiska Türku, Icisleri Bakanliginin, Vatandasliga kabul edilecekler' yolundaki genelgesiyle bayram yapti. Ahiska Türkleri, Türk Bayraklariyla Yalova Emniyet Müdürlügune geldiler ve vatandaslik icin gerekIi islemleri yaptirdilar. Ahiska Türkleri, yillarca 2nci sinif insan muamelesi gördüklerini belirterek, artik kendilerini daha huzurlu hissetiklerini, söyledilier. Yalova Emniyet Müdüru Nurdan Canca da, Türk vatandasligina gecen Ahiska Türklerinin bundan böyle daha rahat is bulabileceklerini söyledi. Mehmet CANTOZUN, hha - 06.06.98
  • MESKHETIANS STAGE PROTEST IN TBILISI
    Some 40 Meskhetians on 16 September demonstrated outside the state chancellery in Tbilisi to demand a meeting with President Eduard Shevardnadze, Caucasus Press reported. The Meskhetians have been lobbying for decades for the right to return to the villages in southwestern Georgia from where they were deported en masse to Central Asia in November 1944. At Shevardnadze's initiative, a few hundred families were repatriated in the mid-1980s. Konstantin Kokoev, chairman of the Georgian parliamentary commission for human rights, said that the implementation of a program to repatriate 5,000 Meskhetian families by 2000 has been halted because of problems in resettling and housing ethnic Georgians forced to flee conflicts elsewhere in Georgia. RFE/RL - 17.09.98
  • TIFLIS- Orta Asya ve diger Bagimsiz Devletler Toplulugu ulkelerinde yasayan Ahiska Turkleri'nden 5 bini 1997 yili basindan itibaren Gurcistan'a donebilecek. Gurcistan Devlet Baskani Eduard Sevardnadze, konuyla ilgili bir kararname yayinladi. Kararnameye gore, 1944 yilinda Gurcistan'in Meshet-Cavahet bolgesinden surulen 300 bin Ahiska Turku'nden 5 bini 1997 yilinin Ocak-Mart aylari icinde kendi topraklarina donebilecek. ZAMAN - Dec 25, 96
  • MESHETIAN TURKS OF KYRGYZSTAN TO HOLD CONGRESS. A congress of Meshetian Turks will be held in the Kyrgyz capital, Bishkek, on 2 November, RFE/RL reported. The leader of the Turk Association of Kyrgyzstan, Maksut Izzatov, claims there are presently 57,000 Meshetian Turks living in Kyrgyzstan, the majority of whom would prefer to move to Turkey. Large numbers of Meshetian Turks were forcibly relocated in Central Asia during World War II from the Caucasus, and in 1989 some were forced to flee Uzbekistan when rioting broke out in areas where they lived. OMRI Digest - Oct 31, 96
  • In 1989, 48.000 Meskhetian Turks returned to Azerbaijan from Central Asia. Eurasian File 12.97
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