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Crimea Facts

The greatest of the Mamluke Sultans of Egypt was the Crimean Tatar, Ruku ad-Din Baibars. He took power in Cairo in 1250 and completed the reconquest of Palestine, driving the last of the Crusaders out. In 1261 he sent a letter to Berke to organize an alliance between the Mamlukes of Egypt and the Kypchak Horde against the Ilkhans in Persia. In 1262 he send an ambassador with a major amount of funding to build the mosque in Solkut, the Tatar capital of Crimea at that time in honor of his own birthplace.
1441 Foundation of the Crimean Khanate 

1552 15.10. Russians burn Kazan and kill the Tatar population  
1736 Russian raid Crimean and burn 2.000 houses, Hansaray and the library.
1746 During the Iranian-Turkish war, the Iranian troops move 24.000 Armenian to Iran to open their way. Some of them go to Crimea
1778 30.000 Crimean Tatars deported from Crimea and around 75.000 Armenians move to the Crimean steppes
April 8, 1783 end of the Crimean Khanate, russian troops under Katherina II. enter Crimea, khan family leaves for Anatolia, remains in Ayas Paşa Camii in Saray/Tekirdağ
1783 7,000-8,000 Crimean Tatars migrated to the Taman peninsula (Caucasus)
1792 aproximately 100,000 Tatars emigrated to Turkey following the Treaty of Jassy
As a result of a rescript of Katharina dated May 27, 1794 the city of Odessa was built at the place of the turco-tatar Fortress Hacibey starting August 22, 1794.
1804-1810 Germans from Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria settle in Crimea. In some villages german live together with Tatars and learn Tatar language. Many of the German people adopted Tatar customs and foods, and learned many other things such as well digging practices, oxen yoking, and other things. As a fellow German wrote in a biography of his life in the Crimea, "In reality our forefathers did not migrate to Russia, but rather to a Tatar land...."
1812 500.000 Crimean Tatars have to leave Crimea (Yeshil Ada) and only 300.000 of them reach Anatolia (Aktoprak) - 100. 000 Crimean Tatars stay
1828 another 200.000 Crimean Tatars have to leave Crimea - more than half of the Crimean Tatar population has left Crimea
1854 due to the Crimean War (12.03.1854-10.09.1856) Frontline Figures all muslims (Crimean Tatars) are forced to move from the sea-side to Inner-Russia
A large migration was that of 1854-1859 and 1860-61 and consisted of aproximately 200,000 people (e.g. to Dobruja in Romania) out of a Tatar population for the Tauride Province (Crimea + neighboring steppe lands) of 300,000.
Due to the Crimean War many foreigners come and stay for a long time in Istanbul. It was the logistic center of the allied forces during the war. For the war, telegraph lines were finished. The message ever received was: Allied Soldiers entered Ak-Yar. The first ever volunteer woman nurse Florence Nightingale organized the hospital built in Selimiye caserne where soldiers of the Crimean War were treated. The hospital has a small museum now. Istanbul's first municipality was founded in 1855. The same year Istanbul's first street (Istiklal Caddesi) was illuminated by gas and the first rail way was built between Haydarpaşa and Fenerbahçe.
1860-1862 another 141.667 Crimean Tatars have to leave - 784 aouls and Tatar villages became empty
1874 500 Tatars emigrate
1875 the war starts
After two waves of Crimean Tatars emigration in 1783 and 1856, in 1880 in Crimea Crimean Tatars had 142 560 quarts of lands, Germans had 202 913 quarts of lands, Bulgars had 22 592 quarts of lands and the Russian Government had 31 978 quarts of lands.
1909 Vatan organization founded
1915 During the Balkan War many Dobruca Tatars leave for Istanbul
April 7, 1917 Crimean Tatar Vatan Association proclaims Crimean Sovereignity in Bahcesaray
6.1917 Milli Fikri founded
December 9, 1917 Milli Kurultai meets
December 26, 1917 Milli Kurultai proclaims Crimean Independance with a 18 chapter constitution
February 23, 1918 Numan Celebi Cihan was murdered by the Bolshevik revolutionaries
April 1918 Germans occupy Crimea
June 1918 Süleyman Sulkiyevic became new prime minister
1918-1920 rule changes between bolsheviks (11.11.1920) and white russians
General Matcey Sulkevich was Polish Tatar who knew about his Crimean origin. He arrived to Crimea in 1919 and led a temporary Government which was the second attempt of Crimean Tatars to restore their Statehood after leadership of First Kurultay was murdered by Bolsheviks. Unfortunately German occupational authorities of that time tried to prevent too active position of Sulkevich Government and he failured to develop all nessesery institutions. After the Bolsheviks entered into Crimea again he escaped to Baku (Azerbajan) and took an active part in National Government of Musavat Party. After Red Army destroyed Azerbaijan Republic he was arrested and killed by Bolsheviks.
1920 the bolshevics terror leaded by Bela Kun lead to death about 60 thousand Crimean Tatars;
1921-1922 the organized man-made starvation, which lead to death of another 60.000 Crimean Tatars. 3,500 people of Crimean Tatar intelligence and clergy were shooted, also 10 thousand people of educated and perspective youth. After them 36 thousand people, who didn't want to go to kolkhozes. A total of 150.000 Crimeans die during the great famine [1921-1923]
October 18, 1921 Independant Soviet Republic Crimea founded by Lenin, Veli Ibrahimov becomes Prime Minister, Crimean Tatar is official language
1927/8 Crimean Tatar Prime Minister Veli Ibrahimov and his friends first arrested, later assasinated
1928-1939 40.000 Crimean Tatars imprisioned or deported to Ural-Siberia region and die during Collectivization - Raskulachivanie
1930s Crimean Tatars moving to Turkey through Istanbul make a stop in Tashan, a three story kervansaray in Carsamba/Fatih
Crimean Tatar diaspora celebrates Tepres in Nuri Bey Park in Uskudar/Istanbul until recently
1932 Hamza bey opened a little coffee house in Fatih/Istanbul. It became a meeting place and the unofficial community center of the Crimean Tatars in diaspora
1921-1941 165.000 CT were murdered or deported
1935 As so many Turks died in the numerous wars, Atatürk invites the Turk and Turkic diaspora to settle in Turkey, e.g. from Dobruja
Gaspirali was pictured in early Soviet works as a modernist whose efforts to enlighten the backward Muslims of the Russian Empire coincided with the Soviets' own objectives. The Soviet regime in fact turned Gaspirali's residence in Bahçesaray into a museum and promoted this figure as a Socialist hero. With Josef Stalin's attack on 'nationalist deviation' among the Crimean Tatars and other Soviet nations in the 1930s, however, Gaspirali's role as a socialist icon came to an abrupt end. Gaspirali was subsequently "repressed in death" and his house-museum was closed in 1930.
June 1937 poet Cemil Kermencikli was declared a Crimean Tatar nationalist and arrested, deported to a Gulag in Archangelsk. He was never seen again; he perished simply because he was declared a dangerous element by the Stalinist regime. Kermencili and hundreds and thousands of talented Crimean Tatars who fought to preserve their national identity, perished during the Oppression of the 30s.
July 1941 45.000 Crimea Germans were deported to Central Asia. Stalin planned to deport the Crimean Tatars but the Germany Army came before the plan could be realized.
28.10.1941-04.1944 during German occupation Crimean Tatars were send as Eastern workers to Germany, South Tirolians were planned to be settled in Crimea, many Crimeans were killed and 128 Tatar villages have been destroyed. The Soviet Union was attacked by Hitler to destroy all "Untermenschen" including Kyrgyz, Mongolian and Tatar. Many Turco-Tatar died in camps. Around 1 million Soviet citizen fought against the Red Army.
November/December 1941: Nazi Troops kill 92.000 Jews on Crimea.
1942: 3.000 Ukrainian and Belarusian Jews survive the Holocaust as Tatars hide them in forests. [Ali Akis]
08 May 1942 German troops attack Kerch Peninsula in the Crimea. Crimean Tatars start leaving Crimea for Romania. The Red Army deports those found in 1944/1945 to Central Asia.
21 year-old later german artist Joseph Beuys (Kleve, -1986) crashes March 16, 1944 at 08.35 AM with his JU-87 on Crimea, 200 meters east of the village Freifeld (today it is called Snamenka). Crimean Tatars save his life. Beuys was in the mobile field hospital 179 in Kruman-Kemekchi (today called Krasnovardiysk) from March 17 till April 07, 1944. Pilot Hans Laurinck died and was buried at the german cemetery. This event has great impact on his later work.
02.42-04.1944 only 7.623 CT join german forces, 53.000 serve in the Red Army (out of 95.000 men), 12.000 joined the partisans. A total of 30.000 men die.
The CT formed 8 Schutzmannschaftbataillone, Nr. 147-154. They mainly fight the very active partisans in the Jaila-Mountain. The claim that CT participated in the attrocities against jews or other people is soviet propaganda to justify the deportation - which was planned long before the invasion of Crimea.
1943 Last Tepres in Crimea
11APR1944 Soviet forces re-enter Crimea
Kerch and Sevastopol resisted german forces until May / July 1944
11.5.1944 secret deportation order
May 18, 1944 - 250.000 to 300.000 Crimean Tatars were deported - 40 percent of them die during Deportation - Surgun to Central Asia - hundreds of thousands of Crimean Tatars were deprived of their homeland, habitation, property and lands. A total of 19.000 NKWD people and 100.000 Interior Ministry Troops took part in the deportations of all deported nations (a total of 825.000 people) organized by the chief Lawrentij Berija. He was convicted and shot December 23, 1953.
some journeys lasted 5 weeks, last wagon arrived in Uzbekistan 06.06.1944. The Steppe population was deported to Central Asia while the Yaliboyu population was deported to Russia.
each 3.500 CT are assigned one NKWD regiment, regiments investigated some time before
June 1944 Greeks were deported from Crimea
19.07.1944 the Tatars of the Arabat strip were overseen during the May deportation. Put on an old ship, they were sunk in the Azov sea.

February 1945 Yalta Conference - Eastern Europe was given to the control of the Soviet Union and decision to divide Germany into four administrative parts
Large resettlement camps were located in Augsburg, Neu-Ulm and Sonthofen near Munich. In the early 1950s there were 80 families in Neu-Ulm and the same in Augsburg. Mittenwald camp housed more than 2000 Crimean Tatars, but many emigrated to Turkey or directly to the US. In Austria Soviet officers try to kidnap Crimean Tatar refugees. They and Turkish officers claim they are from Turkey so they can stay in Austria or move to Germany.
25.06.1945 Crimea looses its status as republic, all tatar cities were renamed.
5.000 returning Red Army soldiers were deported to Central Asia after the fighting, around 30.000 move themselves, the allied forces force CT Eastern Troops to go the SU
According to NKWD 191.000 CT and 50.000 (1.119) German, (9.621) Armenian, (12.422) Bulgar and (15.040) Greek and (3.652) others were deported.
During Deportation and the first 18 months of exile 110.000 CT die. NKWD figures claim that 183.155 CT (151.604 in Uzbekistan and 31.551 in RSFSR) arrived (96%) and 26.775 CT died during 07.06.1944-01.01.1946 (15%).
Crimean Tatars have to live in Special Settlement Camps SpezPoseleniye
09.1945/08.1950 russian migration to Crimea
In October 1945 there were 1,650 Crimean Tatars working in the Tula coal basin and on 20 June 1946 there were 2,532.
26.06.1946 The deportation decree is published in Izvestia
1936-1952 3 million non-russians have been deported
27.2.1954 Crimea is given from Russia to Ukraine as a present during the celebrities of 1000 years friendship
28.4.1956 Crimean Tatars were returned some civic rights, but not allowed to return to Crimea and get their properties. (1000) Tatars move to Southern Ukraine until this also forbidden.
6.58 petition to Upper Soviet, 4 more petitions follow, the last with 25.000 signatures to the XXII Congress of the CPSU 

August 1965 Tatars are allowed to visit Crimea for vacation.
October 1966 Mitings of Crimean tatars concerning 45th of formation Crimean ASSR in Andijan (2000 persons), Bekabad (2000 persons), in Fergana, Kuvasai, Tashkent, Samarkand and other cities. Only in Andijan and Bekabad more than 65 persons are detained. 

1967 Taras Franko and Maria Lisenko say that the Soviet Union should have re-established a Tatar Crimea instead of giving it from Russia to Ukraine
2 September 1967 In Tashkent the militia has dispersed multithousand demonstration of Crimean tatars. 160 persons are detained, 10 of them are condemned.
5 September 1967 Crimean Tatars were returned all civic rights, but where there live, not in Crimea - Tatars are no longer accused of colloraboration with occupants during WW II. Until then Crimean Tatars were not allowed to Crimea even as tourists. Turkish position towards the Tatars helped achieving ths decree.
21 April 1968 Mass beating by militia Crimean tatars during their traditional walking in urban park of Chirchik city. More than 300 persons are detained, 10 of them are condemned.
Between 68 and 69 250 CT were allowed to settle as farmers. From 10.-12.12.69 police forces attacked CT. This violence caused protests from Russians and Ukrainians.
53-73 50 court rulings against 200 active Tatar
1972 Crimean Tatar Rustem Kazakov wins at Munich Olympic Games Gold Medal in Greco-Roman. He was also in 1968 and 1971in Greco-Roman wrestling
1975/6 Mustafa Cemiloglus hunger strike lasts 303 days, his weight falls to 36 kg
1976-1982 6.000 Crimean Tatars were deported a second time to Uzbekistan.
28.06.78 police tried to remove Musa Mamut and his family since 1975. During their last attempt he burns himself.
11.78 another suicide
14.11.78 declaration 

1980s Crimean Tatar pupils are not send to the Crimean Youth Center Artek when qualifiying for it.

1983 Ronald Reagan asks M. Gorbachev to free Mustafa Cemiloğlu.

21.10.1985 another letter to Ronald Reagan leads to Mustafa Cemiloğlus freedom
1986 Mustafa Cemiloglu is free
1987 Perestroika and Glasnost allow activities for the rights of the Crimean Tatar.
11.-12.04.1987 first All-Union meeting of Crimean Tatars Action Group held in Tashkent - appeal to the new leadership under Secretary General M. Gorbachev sent with 40.000 signatures
3./23.07.1987 over 2.000 Crimean Tatar representatives protest on Red Square - largest demonstration since 1917
1987 10.000 CT returned during 20 years, many others were deported, some persecuted
October 25, 1989 Saki Yarullin doused himself with gasoline and set himself on fire in an act of protest against the vicious discrimination of Crimean Tatars by the local authorities.
14.11.1989 Upper Soviet declares the rehabilitation of Crimean Tatars. The deportation in 1944 was declared illegal und criminal.
until 1990 about 38.000 Crimean Tatars return to Crimea, another 100.000 return in 1990
30 September 1990 in the village of Krasnokamenka the pogrom of the tent camp of Crimean Tatars was organized
15th October of 1990 pogrom of the tent camp in Koreiz
2nd August of 1991 the pogrom of settlement of Crimean Tatars in the villige of Molodejnoye by OMON. Russian-speaking people from 22 nearest villages took part in. More than 100 temporary and homes being built of Crimean Tatars were destroyed
12.08.1991 Gorbatchev arrested in his Datcha in Foros
1991 When the Soviet Union collapsed 120.000 Crimean Tatars returned to Crimea. No major administrative changes will be made during the years. So still former communists continue to rule the communities and state offices. Inflation and custom rules of the CIS states destroy the last wealth of the returning Crimean Tatars.
1991 local russian population destroys Tatar housing, e.g. in Alushta
5.92 Crimeas status is changed to Autonomous Republic within Ukraine.
01. 10.92 local authorities destroy a Tatar tent camp in Alushta. Tatars were beaten, tents, houses and construction material destroyed. 27 Tatar were injured and 26 arrested. Milli Meclis wants the people to get free.
06.10.1992 As the authorities refuse, Crimean Tatars demonstrate in front of the government building. As the police cannot prevent the demonstrators to enter the building, the government releases the Tatars.
November 1993 Osmanov killed in Simferopol under suspicous circumstances after a rapprochemant with OKND. New leader is Abduraimow.
According to the decree 315/1/00350, 16.12.1993 of the Russian Army family members of the deported people shall not be used in secrecy relevant departments.
1995 The Ukrainian Ministry of Financial Affairs ceased to allocate money for the program of resettlement of Crimean Tatars
23-27 June of 1995 clashes in Sudak, Feodosia, Jankoy between Crimean Tatars and mafia. 4 Crimean Tatars died, 7 wounded
March 1996 NDKT Leader Abduraimov joins a Communist Party meeting that is pro reconstruction of the Soviet Union and the formation of a slavic-turkic union.
Today still half of the half million Crimean Tatars living in CIS have not been able to return to Crimea. Upon return to Crimea, the Tatars found their homes and lands occupied. They face difficulties in arranging inter-state transport of their personal property and exaction of prohibitive tariffs.
03.06.1997 More then 10 Crimean Tatar with Uzbek passports have to leave a train from Uzbekistan to Ukraine at the Russian-Ukrainian in the Donetsk region. Although there a visa exception between the CIS member countries Uzbekistan, Ukraine and Russia, local militsia claims the passengers fail to present an entry visa.
02.1998 The Ministry for Nationalities and Migration has been downgraded to a state committee.
24.03.1998 Ukrainian Parliament (Ukraine's Communists and leftist parties) failed to provide half of the returning Crimean Tatars with Ukrainian citizenship
March 28, 1998 44 years after the deportation ( SURGUN ) from their homeland, Ukraine elects two Crimean Tatar into the Ukrainian Parliament Verkhoviy Rada.
18.05.1998 Some 10,000 people gathered in Simferopol to mark the 54th anniversary of Stalin's deportation of Crimean Tatars. Crimean Tatars have returned to the peninsula and many have no jobs and housing. A resolution adopted at the gathering demanded Crimean Tatar representatives in state bodies, and official recognition of the Kurultay and the Mejlis, the representative bodies of the Crimean Tatar people.
05.10.98 Mustafa Abdulcemil Kirimoglu, head of the self-proclaimed Tatar parliament in Crimea in Ukraine was awarded the 1998 Nansen Medal for his work in helping his Turkic-speaking people resettle in their former Soviet homeland.
15.01.1999 The office building of the Crimean Tatar National Majlis was burned. The office of the Chair of the Mejlis, Mustafa Abdulcemil Kirimoglu, was completely destroyed, and the building including the communications equipment sustained considerable damage. The fact that water and telephone services were cut off to the building prior to the attack strongly suggests a well planned sabotage. A similar attack took place in 1993.
27.01.1999 The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe discusses the human rights situation in Ukraine. Deputies also monitor the situation of the Crimean Tatars.

2014 Russia invades Crimea. Independant local press has been closed, Ukrainian TV has been blocked. Russian provocateurs talk to people and Russian press about the 'attrocities done by german fascists' in Ukraine and ask for protection. Crimeans have no access to alternative media. Russian army blocks all Ukrainian military facilities and puts pressure on the soldiers and officiers. UN envoy and OSCE observers are not allowed into Crimea. Russian government refuses to talk to the Ukrainian goverment. Prices rise, shops get empty. Airport partly closed, traffic disturbed. Several activists and journalists abducted and beaten. Dozens of Ukrainian soldier killed. One Crimean Tatar activist tortured and executed. The participation at the so called referendum was around one third. Several thousand flee to mainland Ukraine up to Lviv and even Poland. Russia condemned and sanctioned by the Council of Europe.

April 2014 Russia decrees the rehabilitation of the Crimean Tatars and apologizes for the Stalin era crimes. The practical consequences are non-existent. The top leaders of the Crimean Tatar nation have been been banned entry to this homeland, his son imprisoned.

Crimean Tatars and Germans are again harassed, discriminated and under pressure.

A Tatar leader, Abduraman Egiz, was beaten. Kazan based activist Rafis Kashapov was imprisoned.

Any kind of expression of sympathy for Ukraine is punished nowadays in Crimea.

There is no more free press in Russia and Crimea. Independent and unfiltered information is no more accessible.


Ukraine did not discriminate any ethnic group in Crimea. There was not a single reported case to the Council of Europe or OSCE.
Food, medicine and transport prices after the annexation doubled. Some goods are no longer available as food from Europe has been banned.

18 May 2014 Tatars were not allowed to remember the 70th deportation anniversary in their homeland.

18 May 2015 Ukraine has declared May 18 to the Remembrance Day of Crimean Tatars Deportation from their homeland by the Soviet Union.



Tourism in Crimea collapsed, unemployment is rising. Credit cards no longer accepted in Crimea.

Crimea's trade with many parts of the world became impossible without Ukrainian documents.
University diplomas of occupied Crimea will not be recognized in Europe.
All civil rights are lost.

Occupied Crimea's football clubs can continue to compete in the ukrainian league.
Russian bureaucrats are firing if they express their opinion on current foreign and internal affairs. The russian deputies have to vote according to the given path.
The aggression displaced 1.3 million people since 2014.
The block GUAM switch its intra-block communication to english.